Die Frage, wie viele Baumarten die Erde bevölkern, ist noch immer ungelöst - Forschende aus aller Welt haben nun auf biologischer, kontinentaler und globaler Skala ihre Daten zusammengetragen.

In den Tropen, wo die Artenvielfalt weltweit am größten ist, gibt es noch viele Gebiete, die bislang nicht systematisch erfasst wurden. Foto: pixabay.com

Demzufolge gibt es auf der Erde rund 73.300 Baumarten, 14 Prozent mehr als bislang angenommen. Etwa 9.000 Baumarten müssten noch entdeckt werden, 40 Prozent davon – so die Erwartung der Forschenden – in Südamerika. Fast ein Drittel aller entdeckten und ein Großteil der unentdeckten Baumarten sind dabei selten: Sie haben nur sehr geringe Populationen und sind räumlich begrenzt verbreitet, wahrscheinlich in abgelegenen tropischen Tieflandgebieten und Gebirgen, so das Helmholtz-Zentrum Potsdam - Deutsches GeoForschungsZentrum GFZ in einer Mitteilung.

Etwa 43 Prozent aller Baumarten der Erde kommen in Südamerika vor, gefolgt von Eurasien mit einem Anteil von 22 Prozent, Afrika mit 16 Prozent, Nordamerika mit 15 Prozent und Ozeanien mit 11 Prozent. Die neuen Schätzwerte seien jedoch auch mit Ungenauigkeiten verbunden, heißt es. Grundsätzlich kenne man die Europäischen Wälder besser, hier sei die Artenvielfalt relativ gut erforscht. Insbesondere in den Tropen, wo die Artenvielfalt weltweit am größten ist, gebe es jedoch noch viele Gebiete, die bislang nicht systematisch erfasst wurden.

Die Schätzung der Anzahl der Baumarten sei von grundlegener Bedeutung für das Verständnis vom Funktionieren von Ökosystemen und für die Optimierung und Priorisierung von Waldschutzmaßnahmen auf der ganzen Welt, informiert das Helmholtz Zentrum. Aus den Daten ließen sich nicht nur die evolutionären Mechanismen ableiten, die zur Vielfalt geführt haben, sondern sie könnten auch helfen zu identifizieren, welche Systeme am widerstandsfähigsten gegenüber globalen Veränderungen sind. Auch die Erkenntnis über das Ausmaß bislang unentdeckter und seltener Arten, die stärker vom Aussterben bedroht sind, sei wichtig für Maßnahmen zur Bewahrung der biologischen Vielfalt. (cst)

Helmholtz-Zentrum Potsdam - Deutsches GeoForschungsZentrum GFZ 

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