Forschende haben nachgewiesen, dass in einigen Teilen Europas die Sommertrockenheiten der letzten Jahre im Vergleich zu den vergangenen Jahrhunderten sehr ungewöhnlich waren.

Die neue Messmethode setzt statt auf der Breite der Baumringe auf Isotopendaten auf. Foto:

Das Forschungsteam hat dazu eine den ganzen europäischen Kontinent umfassende Klimafeldrekonstruktion mithilfe einer neuen Messemthode, die auf Baumring- Isotopendaten basiert, erstellt. Mit der Methode sei eine nachträgliche Rekonstruktion des europäisches Sommer-Hydroklimas bis zurück ins Jahr 1600 möglich, heißt es in einer Aussendung der Freien Universität Berlin. Aus den Daten konnten unter anderem Informationen über den Niederschlag während der letzten Jahrhunderte in Europa extrahiert werden. Dabei konnten die Forschenden drei unterschiedliche Phasen der europäischen Hydroklima-Variabilität ermitteln, die zudem durch einen langfristigen Austrocknungstrend ab Mitte des 20. Jahrhunderts überlagert werden.

Die stabilen Isotopenaufzeichnungen von Sauerstoff und Kohlenstoff aus dem Netzwerk von 26 einzelnen und gut verteilten Standorten in ganz Europa enthielten außerordentlich konsistente saisonale Reaktionen. Dies stehe im Gegensatz zu den unterschiedlichen saisonalen Reaktionen, die in klassischen Baumringaufzeichnungen wie Ringbreiten beobachtet werden, heißt es weiter. Darüber hinaus zeigten alle Baumring-Isotopenaufzeichnungen unabhängig von der Baumart, der Höhe und der geografischen Lage eine Empfindlichkeit gegenüber sommerlichen Trockenheitsbedingungen.

Die saisonale Konsistenz und größere Klimasensitivität von Baumring-Isotopenaufzeichnungen im Vergleich zu klassischen Baumringaufzeichnungen haben es ermöglicht, ein „kohärentes saisonales Dürresignal für den ganzen europäischen Kontinent zu erhalten“. Man könne zeigen, dass die jüngsten europäischen Sommerdürren (2015–2018) im Vergleich zu den vergangenen Jahrhunderten höchst ungewöhnlich und beispiellos für weite Teile Mittel und Westeuropas seien. Die neue Messemethode liefere damit weitere Beweise dafür, dass die jüngsten Sommerdürren in Europa sehr wahrscheinlich durch menschengemachte Faktoren beeinflusst wurden. (cst)

Studie „European tree-ring isotopes indicate unusual recent hydroclimate“

Freie Universität Berlin 


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