Vor Kurzem ist der Startschuss für die Bauarbeiten des DFAB HOUSE erfolgt. Damit entsteht das erste Haus, das mit digitalen Prozessen entworfen, geplant und gebaut wird.
Auf dem NEST-Gelände in Dübendorf entsteht das erste Haus, dass digital entworfen, geplant und auch gebaut wurde. Bildquelle: NCCR Digital Fabrication, 2017
Roboter bauen Mauern, 3D-Drucker drucken ganze Schalungen für Geschossdecken – die digitale Fabrikation in der Architektur hat sich in den letzten Jahren rasant entwickelt. Derzeit bauen acht Professuren der ETH Zürich gemeinsam mit Wirtschaftspartnern das dreigeschossige DFAB HOUSE. Dabei entsteht auf der Forschungs- und Innovationsplattform NEST in Dübendorf das weltweit erste Haus, das weitgehend mit digitalen Prozessen entworfen, geplant und gebaut wird.

Vom Anfang bis zum Ende digital
Das DFAB HOUSE ist insofern speziell, da es nicht nur digital geplant wurde, sondern auch weitgehend mit digitalen Prozessen gebaut wird. Mit diesem Pilotprojekt wollen die Forscher herausfinden, inwiefern digitale Technologien das Bauen nachhaltiger und effizienter machen können. Die einzelnen Bauteile wurden auf Basis des Entwurfs digital aufeinander abgestimmt und exakt nach diesen Daten produziert.

Neue Verfahren im Praxistest
Gleich vier verschiedene Bauverfahren werden im Rahmen des Projekts erstmals von der Forschung in die Baupraxis überführt. Die Bauarbeiten starten mit der sogenannten Mesh Mould-Technologie, die das Bauen mit Beton künftig grundlegend verändern könnte. Eine zentrale Rolle übernimmt dabei der 2m große Bauroboter In situ Fabricator, der sich auf Raupen autonom bewegen kann. Ein vom ihm produziertes Stahldrahtgitter dient als Schalung für den Beton. Am Ende resultiert daraus eine doppelt gekrümmte, tragende Wand. Auf ihr wird ein sogenannter Smart Slab montiert – eine statisch optimierte und funktional integrierte Geschossdecke, für deren Schalung ein großformatiger 3D-Sanddruck genutzt wird. Für die Fassade im Erdgeschoss kommt die Technologie Smart Dynamic Casting zum Einsatz, die es ermöglicht, maßgeschneiderte Fassadenpfosten auf Beton zu produzieren. Die beiden oberen Stockwerke werden mittels Spatial Timber Assemblies als räumlich zusammengefügter Holzbau von zusammenarbeitenden Robotern an der ETH Zürich vorgefertigt.

08 DFAB HOUSE MeshMould IF 10 800px
Bauroboter In situ Fabricator und Mesh-Mould-Prototyp: Dank der engmaschigen Struktur des Stahldrahtgitters und der speziellen Betonmischung bleibt der Beton innerhalb des Gitters. Bildquelle: NCCR Digital Fabrication, 2017

Ab Sommer 2018 dient das dreistöckige Gebäude auf einer Nutzfläche von 200 m2 als Wohn- und Arbeitsort.



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