In einer neuen Studie zeigen Forschende der schweizerischen Eidgenössischen Forschungsanstalt für Wald, Schnee und Landschaft WSL, wie sich der Stress eines Baumes frühzeitig erkennen lässt.

Im Pfynwald, einem der trockensten inneralpinen Alpentäler Europas, werden im Rahmen eines Langzeit-Experiments seit 2003 Kiefern unterschiedlichen Bewässerungsregimen ausgesetzt. Foto: Michèle Kaennel Dobbertin, WSL

Das frühe Erkennen von Baumstress ist wichtig, um die Auswirkungen von Trockenheit auf die Wälder zu verstehen und Baumarten identifizieren zu können, die besser als andere an Trockenheit angepasst sind. Forschende kommen Baumstress unter anderem über die Analyse von Jahrringen oder über die Photosyntheseleistung der Nadeln und Blätter auf die Spur: Dadurch lässt sich erkennen, ob sich das Baumwachstum über mehrere Jahre oder während eines Hitzesommers verlangsamt hat. Die Messmethoden sind wertvoll, aber auch zeitaufwendig - jeder Baum muss einzeln und detailliert untersucht werden, so dass nur wenige Bäume in einem Wald beurteilt werden können.

Die Studie aus der Schweiz zeigt nun, dass sich das Stressniveau von Bäumen mit einer multispektralen Kamera aus der Luft erkennen lässt. Während einer Versuchsreihe mit Drohnenflügen über Kiefern im Pfynwald haben Messungen gezeigt, dass das reflektierte Licht Veränderungen in den photosynthetischen Pigmenten hervorruft. Über die Analyse dieser Pigmentveränderungen lässt sich ableiten, wieviel ein Baum jeweils in die Photosynthese, das heißt in das Wachstum, oder in andere Prozesse, die durch Ressourcenknappheit hervorgerufen werden, investiert. Vereinfacht gesagt: das Sonnenlicht, das von den Baumkronen reflektiert wird, enthält Informationen über den Baumzustand.

Gerade wenn am wenigsten Wasser verfügbar ist, ist die Lichteinstrahlung oft am stärksten. Die Blätter oder Nadeln kommen dadurch aus dem Gleichgewicht - sie absorbieren mehr Energie, als sie für die Photosynthese brauchen, weil sie ihre Stomata schliessen, um das Austrocknen zu verhindern. Um die überschüssige Energie abzuleiten, kurbeln die Nadeln die Umwandlung von Pigmenten an. Diese Aktivität kann über multispektrale Bildgebung beobachtet werden, eine Technik, die für das menschliche Auge unsichtbare Informationen erkennbar macht. Durch die Fernbeobachtung mit Drohnen können viel mehr Bäume in kurzer Zeit gemessen werden als mit den klassischen physiologischen Messungen am Boden. Die Methode werde laut WSL in Zukunft als Ergänzung zu anderen Techniken unverzichtbar sein, um die Reaktion des Waldes auf wärmere und trockenere Bedingungen frühzeitig erfassen zu können. (cst)

Eidgenössische Forschungsanstalt für Wald, Schnee und Landschaft WSL 



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