Forschende der University of Maryland haben eine Behandlungsmethode für Holz entwickelt, die die Härte des Ausgangsmaterials um das 23-fache erhöht.

Holz besteht zu 40 bis 50 % aus Zellulose, das die Skelettstruktur des Stoffes bildet, berichtet „wissenschaft.de“ online. Das neue Härtungsverfahren der Materialwissenschaftler:innen basiere auf der Entfernung der restlichen Bestandteile – Hemizellulose und Lignin – ohne das Zelluloseskelett zu zerstören. Danach werde das Gefüge in einer Heizpressung komprimiert. Anschließend werde das gehärtete Holz mit Ölen behandelt, um es für den Gebrauch im Kontakt mit Feuchtigkeit zu optimieren, da Zellulose dazu neige, Wasser zu absorbieren. Das gehärtete Holz könne dann in die jeweils gewünschte Form geschnitzt oder geschliffen werden, so „wissenschaft.de“.

Gehärtetes Holz könne eine umweltfreundliche Alternative zu Metall, Kunststoff und Keramik bei der Herstellung von Produkten darstellen, heißt es weiter. Holzmesser mit geschliffenen Klingen, die die Forschenden zu Demonstrationszwecken hergestellt haben, überträfen nicht nur die Schärfe von handelsüblichen Messern, sie seien außerdem wasch- und wiederverwendbar. Sollten sie irgendwann entsorgt werden, können sie kompostiert werden. Auch die Holznägel, die die Wissenschaftler:innen aus dem neuen Material erzeugt haben, bestanden den Praxistest. Schrauben und Nägel aus gehärtetem Holz haben zudem den Vorrteil, dass sie nicht rosten. (cst)

Bericht „wissenschaft.de“ 

Fachmagazin „Matter“ 

University of Maryland 

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